Step 1 is the drive ratios. What this refers to is the difference in size between the drive wheel and the driven object — the whorl, which in turn will be moving the spindle (on a spindle wheel such as a charkha or great wheel), the bobbin or flyer (on a single drive wheel), or both bobbin and flyer (on a double drive wheel).
You can measure this most easily by measuring the circumference. Take a piece of string, and wrap it one time around the drive wheel in the same spot where the drive band goes. However long that string is, that’s the circumference for the drive wheel. Now, do the same with the whorl. Let’s suppose that your drive wheel is 15″ around, and the whorl is 5″ around. To calculate the ratio, you divide the number for the drive wheel by the number for the driven object (the whorl). This gets you a 3:1 ratio — the drive wheel is 3 times the size of the whorl. What this means is that for every one time the drive wheel goes all the way around, the whorl is going to make 3 revolutions.
Now, let’s say you have a 20″ drive wheel, and 5″ whorl. That’s a 4:1 ratio, which means every time the drive wheel goes around once, the whorl (and therefore the spindle, flyer, or bobbin) is going to go around 4 times.
You could also get this same effect by keeping your 15″ circumference drive wheel, and going from a 5″ circumference whorl to one that measures 3.75″ in circumference (1/4 of 15″). This is still a ratio of 4:1, though the sizes of the drive wheel and driven object are different from the previous example.
But, let’s say you have that 15″ circumference drive wheel, and what you really want is a 30:1 ratio. At this point, you need a whorl that is half an inch around — very small. What’s wrong with that? The answer is traction — your drive band needs to be able to get a good enough grip on the whorl to cause it to turn, including turning whatever is on the end of it. Mechanically speaking, when your driven object gets smaller, the first thing you notice is it being harder to make it move, and the next thing you notice is that it loses traction and starts to slip — it just can’t get hold of the whorl and make it go.
It’s also harder, from a manufacturing standpoint, to make something really tiny and exact and still durable.
So now let’s say that you move up to a drive wheel that’s 30″ in circumference; now to get a 30:1 ratio, you need a 1″ circumference whorl. There is a lot more room for grip on that! A high ratio setup works more efficiently with larger pulleys (wheels and whorls and whatnot) because of an assortment of traction issues.
There are other factors in play as well. For example, distance between the drive wheel and the whorl changes how much contact the drive band has on the whorl, as does how the drive band is set up. In a double drive system, the drive band is doing double duty, driving both the flyer and the bobbin (just at different rates). There’s more drive band, and more driven objects, and thus more opportunity for slippage and loss of traction — so double drive systems are easier to make work well with larger drive wheels and whorls.
Another factor is that a larger wheel (or a heavier one) will have greater momentum. This means that once you get it going, it’s better able to keep going with less effort, than something smaller and lighter.
So, what does this mean in practice?
1. It’s easier to build a high-ratio wheel with a larger drive wheel.
Therefore, it’s more likely that wheels suited to spinning fast (at high ratios) will have larger drive wheels, while wheels suited to spinning slow (at low ratios) will have smaller ones. A higher speed at the flyer gives you more twist faster; a lower speed gives you less. The thinner your yarn, the more twist it can hold, and the fatter your yarn, the less. So for spinning a very fine yarn, you want high ratios, and for spinning fat yarn, you want lower ones.
2. A wheel with a larger drive wheel will most likely have superior momentum.
This means that once you get it going, it’s going to be easier to keep it going. You’ll get less tired treadling it.
3. A wheel with a larger drive wheel may have limitations when it comes to low ratios.
If you have that 30″ drive wheel and you want a 3:1 ratio, you need a 10″ whorl. Will that fit in your flyer assembly area?
The most common modern wheels are multi-taskers, which do very well for a broad spectrum of types of spinning. They will commonly have drive wheels with diameters from 13″ to 24″, which translates to circumferences between 40″ and 75″ roughly speaking. These wheels can fit in a good range of spaces, and commonly feature multiple ratios between 5:1 and 20:1, making them suited for spinning a wide range of fibers in a variety of ways. Where these wheels fall short is when it comes to being tuned for specific purposes that are at the extremes of the spectrum: super duper thick yarn, or mega ultra fine yarn (or very short stapled fibers that need a lot of twist fast).
Antique “Production” wheels commonly had much larger drive wheels, being suited to producing very large amounts of very fine yarn as fast as a true production spinner could draft. Great wheels, with drive wheels that can be 48″ in diameter (so 4 feet across and over 12 feet all the way around!) are ideal for spinning woolen yarns very very quickly, though the spinner must be able to keep up, of course. Production flyer wheels often have 36″ drive wheels (3 feet across, 9.5 feet all the way around the rim). You’ll also often see such wheels have seemingly small bobbin capacities — they’re for spinning fine yarn for weaving, mainly. You would still pack quite a bit of yardage of fine yarn onto those wheels!
So, when you’re shopping for a wheel, consider what type of yarn you want to spin with it. If you know for a fact you want to spin a lot of fine yarn quickly, you want a big-drive-wheel kind of wheel; if you know you want to churn out bulky low-twist yarn, you want something with a really small drive wheel. If you’re interested in a variety of options that don’t go to such extremes, then a midrange size for a drive wheel is probably a good one for you.
This is also a reason why many veteran spinners have more than one wheel: it is difficult to have only one wheel fill every spinning need. Though many modern wheels can fill most, spinners with work that falls to one end of the spectrum or the other may find that they have a wheel on which they like to do most of their very fine spinning, most of their very bulky spinning, and a wheel that’s good for everything in between.
Christmas of 2006 brought me a Louet Victoria wheel, given to me by my son. I’ve now spent five days treating it as my primary wheel, and putting it to the real-life Abby test. Read on for a comprehensive review.
The Simple Facts
The Louet Victoria, or S95/S96, is the latest wheel from Dutch wheelmaker Louet, whose wheels and other fiber equipment have been well-received over the past several decades by a wide range of fiber artists. Key elements in Louet wheel popularity are modern design and materials, terrific durability, and ease of maintenance. However, some handspinners (including myself) have found Louet wheels to be somewhat limited in versatility for one major reason: they have always been bobbin lead. That changes with the Victoria, a lightweight portable wheel which is also Louet’s first flyer lead / scotch tension offering.
Louet states that Victoria is as of this writing the lightest and most compact portable spinning wheel on the market, an audacious claim but one which appears to be accurate. Lighter than all the competition at about 10 pounds even in the carry bag with all accessories, the Victoria folds up to be slightly taller than the venerable Bosworth Journey Wheel, but also a little thinner. Securely stowed in a well-designed carry bag which can be used as an in-hand tote, tote with shoulder strap, or backpack, the Victoria is a no-brainer to fit in an airline overhead bin, and possibly under the seat in front of you. Victoria’s carry bag secures and pads the wheel and lazy kate and bobbins quite well, and features a capacious exterior pocket which could easily accommodate a number of additional bobbins and several pounds of fiber. If you can carry around a typical laptop bag, you can carry around the Louet Victoria.
As of December 2006, the new Louet wheel comes standard with three drive ratios, 6:1, 10:1, and 14:1; Louet says that a high-speed kit will be available in the first half of 2007, allowing ratios higher than 20:1. Louet’s web site lists the S95/S96 at 3-3.5 kg (6.5-7.5 pounds) with a folded size of 13.5 cm thick, 30 cm wide, and 47.5 cm tall (that’s 5.375 inches thick, 11.875 inches wide, and 18.75 inches tall). The Victoria in its initial sales phase comes with the carry bag, 3 bobbins, and a 2-bobbin lazy kate, and retails for $550 US, although vendors indicate that the price is expected to increase to the $700 US range following the initial round of sales. It is available in beech (S95) or slightly heavier oak (S96).
Bobbin Lead? Flyer Lead? What?
Simply put, bobbin lead means that what is driven when you treadle is the bobbin, so the bobbin is the first thing to move, and the flyer (which turns separately from the bobbin) follows after. Braking action is applied to the flyer, often with a leather band across the orifice. On a bobbin lead spinning wheel, a drive band connects the drive wheel and bobbin, causing the bobbin to turn when the drive wheel turns. This type of setup is sometimes called Irish tension.
On a flyer lead spinning wheel, a whorl attached to the flyer is connected via a drive band to the drive wheel, and the flyer is the first thing to move. Braking action is applied to the bobbin, which turns independent of the flyer. This type of setup is often referred to as Scotch tension.
On a flyer lead wheel, it is possible for a spinner to easily reduce the tension, or strength of pull-in and takeup of spun yarn on the bobbin, to near zero, enabling the spinning of extremely fine yarn and short stapled and fine fibers. This very light takeup is much harder, and in some cases impossible, to achieve with bobbin lead. Many handspinners who prefer to spin very fine yarns therefore shy away from bobbin lead wheels, opting instead for flyer lead wheels, whether scotch tension or double drive. This being the case, lace spinners have often rejected Louet wheels simply on the basis of being bobbin lead (though many Louet owners have found ways to reduce the takeup on their wheels and spin yarns that are quite fine).
The Setup, and the Technical Dirt
Nothing about the wrapped present under the Christmas tree said “spinning wheel” to me, even when my family gleefully urged me to shake the present and try to guess what it was. Wrapped in its original shipping box, it weighed under 10 pounds (or under 5 kg), the package was maybe 8 inches (20.32 cm) thick, and nothing rattled or sounded like bobbins or moving parts, at all. Mind you, with the wrapping paper off, the telltale LOUET packaging with details on the wheel on the end, shipped from a fiber shop I know well, were dead giveaways.
Opening the shipping box, out slid the wheel packed securely in its zippered nylon carrying case. Unzipping the top flap and opening it, printed instructions leapt right out at me explaining the sequence in which to unpack it. Held in place by two nylon straps with backpack-style buckles, as well as fitted holes and light padding secured to a flexible but sturdy backplate, it was impressive to see what all fit in the carry case neatly. Following the instructions, I removed a bobbin from its secure holding place, unbuckled the first of two nylon straps, gently pulled a knob that held the wheel in its folded state and swung the back bar with drive wheel and whorl upright, at which point that same knob clicked smoothly into place holding the wheel upright. I unbuckled the second of the nylon straps, lifted the wheel out by the leather loop across the top of the back bar (a carrying handle!) and placed it in front of the chair where I intended to spin, noting with surprise that it was only a little more than knee high, and made my nearby Majacraft Suzie Pro look like a hulking behemoth. I looked in the bag for the flyer, then realized (yes, I went back to the instructions!) it was secured in a nylon bushing under the left treadle.
The three-grooved Louet whorl is made from a lightweight metal which appears to be powdercoated black, and is mounted securely at the top of the hinged back bar. At the center of the whorl is a slot into which the flyer shaft fits, aided by a magnetic lock; to remove the flyer for changing bobbins or to pack up the wheel, you hold the whorl steady and pull towards you on the flyer and bobbin, and they simply snap out of place (but don’t forget to watch out for your brake band). The entire flyer comes off, shaft included — this is similar to how the Ashford Joy flyer assembly comes off, for those familiar with that. In lieu of a more traditional mother-of-all and maiden bar, the Victoria has a small wooden piece which extends out from the back bar under where the flyer goes, and it is this piece which houses the scotch tension mechanism. As supplied, the scotch tension setup consists of a long spring at left mounted to a peg, with a monofilament that you then route over the bobbin groove, under a hook at right, and forward to where you insert the tubular tensioning knob into a hole in the aforementioned wooden piece. The flyer operates independent of any friction bearing, similar to Majacraft flyers or, again, the Ashford Joy.
The flyer itself is made from the same wood as the wheel (mine is oak), including the flyer arms. Stationary hooks are placed on either side of the orifice (which is also a lightweight metal with an apparent black powdercoat covering), and flyer hooks are nylon rings with metal loops. Bobbins have end caps made from medium density fiberboard (MDF) with a veneer matching the rest of the wheel (one end grooved for the brake band) which contain nylon bushings, and the core appears to be nylon or plastic.
The drive wheel, the widest part of the entire Victoria, measures a full 14 inches (35.56 cm) in diameter — just a tiny bit larger than the drive wheel on the Suzie Pro, to my surprise. It is also made from MDF with a matching wood veneer, very seamlessly done. It is my opinion that MDF is in many respects functionally superior to solid wood for things like drive wheels, due to its uniformity of weight. However, MDF is not particularly attractive; the veneer solves this problem nicely.
One single footman rod connects to the drive wheel using a nylon cup that snaps on and is secured in place by a nylon ring that you slip down to the end of the cup; you must detach this in order to fold the wheel. It actually detaches easier than it attaches, and it is this piece which I would expect to see wear out and need replacing the soonest — but no guesses how long that might take, and it would depend on how you use the wheel as well.
The single footman rod connects to the right treadle; a wooden seesaw bar connects the two treadles. Each treadle is hinged near the bottom (where your heel would go) but not all the way at the bottom; this allows for a heel-toe treadling action, or a light touch with the ball of your feet further up the treadle. It is entirely possible and comfortable to operate the wheel using either foot, or both feet. Treadles are placed fairly close together, and are slightly longer and wider than my feet shod in women’s US size 8 (metric/European 38) shoes.
To pack up the wheel, you detach the flyer, remove the bobbin, and place the flyer shaft into the nylon bushing beneath the left treadle, flyer hooks facing up. Pick up the wheel and place it into the carry bag so the feet slip into their little holder spots, secure the first strap over the treadles, and twist on the footman rod to detach it from the drive wheel. Pull out the small knob at the hinged back bar’s base, and fold the back bar down — the knob will snap into place automatically when the wheel is fully closed. Secure the second strap across the wheel, place one bobbin in its elastic loop holder and the lazy kate with two bobbins on it in its spot in the carry case, zip up, and you’re done. Setup and pack-up both take 2-4 minutes tops.
The Road Test
In five days, I spun a range of fibers and types of yarn which I felt would represent a fairly broad spectrum of spinning, though focusing in particular on what has always been the Achilles heel of Louet wheels, extremely fine yarn. Because the highest ratio presently available is 14:1, I excluded cotton from my tests for the time being. I put both spinning and plying to the test, as well as the lazy kate, and specifically looked for idiosyncracies, quirks, and limitations.
Let me start by saying that I am largely a spinner of very fine yarn; I’m also a very fast drafter who likes to spin at very high ratios, even for types of yarn which most people spin at lower ratios. 12:1 is about as low a ratio as I typically spin at, so the Victoria’s default top ratio is on the low end of what I like to spin with personally. I’m also an admitted flyer lead aficionado, and someone who spins for sometimes as much as 10 hours in a day. Lastly, I have bad knees due to a hereditary issue that results in very easily dislocated kneecaps, particularly with uneven fatigue (so I no longer drive stick, run, or spend really long periods of time with single treadle mechanisms).
All three bobbins were equipped with a loop which worked well as a leader to attach a yarn for plying; for spinning though, I prefer a fairly long leader, so I tied a length of other yarn to the loop (with an open loop, so as to be able to replace it easily when/if needed). Threading the leader through the flyer hooks and orifice was a breeze; with the openness of the metal loops in the flyer hooks, and the length of the opening atop the orifice tube, no hook was really necessary at any point. Sliding flyer hooks which are also able to be twisted around on the flyer arms are a major selling point for any wheel in my book; this allows me the most fine-grained control of my wind-on, enabling me to fill bobbins completely while really fine-tuning draw-in as well. Sliding flyer hooks, preferably adjustable in the sense that they can be rotated on the arm, are a personal requirement for me for any production wheel. I also find there are advantages to be had from not needing a hook to thread a flyer and orifice; first of all, no hook to lose, and second of all, no hook to find if you need to rethread it due to a break or what have you.
The Victoria’s orifice height is the lowest of any wheel I can recall spinning on! Seated on a typical sofa, the orifice is just barely above knee height. However, it’s angled up slightly, and the orifice tube itself is long. To my surprise, the lower orifice height actually proved beneficial, lengthening my potential drafting range and the distance between my hands and the orifice, compensating more than I anticipated for a top speed slower than is my usual choice.
Expecting that there would be at least a little break-in, I opted to start with a fairly pedestrian yarn: I took about half an ounce of commercial merino top, split it roughly in half, and spun it from the fold into a single that felt comfortable with languid treadling at the medium ratio. I put half on one bobbin, and half on another, and then put those onto the lazy kate / bobbin holder and plied them onto the third. This allowed me to check out each bobbin and give them all a chance to get a bit broken in. Each bobbin had a tiny bit of a tendency to grab the monofilament at first. After verifying there was no abnormal wear on the monofilament, and no definite burrs or anything like that on the bobbins, I simply spun away.
On the initial runs for each bobbin, there was a mild tendency to catch the brake band; however this was gone by the time I had about 75 yards of yarn onto the first, and eliminated with a tiny bit of wax on the second, down in the groove for the brake band. The problem was more marked on the initial plying run; as suggested by the instructions that came with the wheel, I rerouted the brake band so that it included a cross (meaning that the direction of spin was opposed in relation to where the spring on the brake band is located). This did make the scotch tension more responsive; however this particular bobbin also made a little bit of a whirring-scraping noise. Having encountered that before on other wheels, I applied a tiny drop of spinning wheel oil directly to the bobbin groove while plying. I suspect that changing to an all-cotton brake band would also eliminate any such noise. When the monofilament wears out, that’s probably what I’ll replace it with.
The scotch tension knob is pretty sensitive, though it could turn a little more smoothly in its hole, to facilitate minor adjustments. I’d like to give it a little longer to break in than I’ve given it so far; in another week or two, if it doesn’t turn a bit more freely, I may try a tiny bit of beeswax on it.
Treadle action is incredibly smooth and easy; I was able to operate the wheel with ease while sitting in a rocking recliner, without causing myself to rock! By the time I was done plying the first yarn, there was a mild squeak coming from the treadle area. This took me a while to track down; however, to track it down, I picked up the small, lightweight wheel and operated the treadles with the wheel essentially laying in my lap and my ear to it while watching things move. It turned out to be the pin connecting the footman rod connector to the right-hand treadle, rubbing against the wood in the footman rod at one particular point during the stroke. I ran a super-fine emery board through the crevice and applied a single drop of synthetic lubricant (I’m sure beeswax would have worked equally well). This squeak would, I’m sure, have worked itself out in another few days of break-in.
When treadling at over 100 treadles per minute — not a speed you’d sustain for long! — I did manage to get some vibration and wobble from the wheel. Short of that, however, nothing — and the wheel did not walk or slide on a hardwood floor at normal speeds, and did very well with being placed on a somewhat uneven surface.
So how does Victoria travel? Well, I packed it up and took it with me over to the in-laws for Christmas dinner, and spun there for a while as well. Since we were also taking presents and part of Christmas dinner, vehicle space was a little limited, and the wheel rode on my lap in its carrying case, outside pocket containing my small carry-around bag (don’t call it a purse! it mostly carries my spindle and fiber!), a pound of Falkland top, and about 3 ounces of fresh sock batt seconds. Setup, spinning, and packing up were completely unobtrusive.
By the time I was done with the second yarn (sock yarn from my own blend), I’d found one more idiosyncracy, which in truth only gave me greater appreciation for the attention to detail Louet put into this wheel. The brake band attaches to the scotch tension knob with a small screw, and the flyer hooks’ nylon rings are 2, maybe 3 mm thick. In one specific position, it is possible to get the nylon ring to touch that screw on the scotch tension knob, making a very quiet clicking sound! This did not interfere with operation at all while spinning, even spinning very fine yarn; and moving the flyer hook or turning the tension knob the tiniest increment eliminated it. This discovery came close on the heels of me concluding that it wasn’t a good idea for me to adjust the scotch tension brake band while the flyer was in motion (ow). Later, packing a bobbin to the max with plied yarn, I did manage to run across the slight clicking again and knock the tension knob loose; a minor surprise, but a total non-issue, something I mention only to illustrate just how carefully fitted this wheel is; you literally could not pack more into the space available, and the engineering and fit and finish are exceptional.
Discovering that, though, caused me to really look closely at the layout of the wheel. Clearances for all moving parts really push the limit of what you can pack into the space available. I wouldn’t have thought that it was possible to get good operation out of something with such tight clearances; in places they are even tighter than the Journey Wheel, which for me sets the standards in “packing a lot of function into a tiny package.” That said, though, you could say one limitation the Victoria will have if used as a primary wheel is that there’ll never be a jumbo flyer; the flyer provided is as large as you could get on there. However, this is not a major limitation, as bobbin capacity is more generous than I’d have expected, being similar to if not greater than that of a standard Ashford bobbin when pushed to the limit, even with bulky novelty yarn wound on pretty loosely.
Untensioned on the flyer shaft, the bobbins do make a rather annoying squealing sound, which the instructions do mention and explain is normal; they did so as well on an untensioned vertical lazy kate as well as an untensioned horizontal one with metal shafts, but did not do so on my Will Taylor tensioned (also vertical) lazy kate. The bobbin rack/lazy kate supplied with Victoria holds the bobbins only by the ends, and is totally silent. To my surprise despite its light weight, it was also extremely stable and didn’t have a tendency to scoot around, due to good-sized rubber feet. Yarn wound off the bobbins on it very smoothly when plying even at varying speeds such as for the boucle, and the lazy kate didn’t slip even when I wound skeins from it very quickly. Winding one skein, rather than taking the bobbin off and carrying it over near where I usually skein my yarn, or carrying my skeiner to the wheel, I simply carried the Victoria to the skeiner — and imagine my surprise when I realized that the Victoria, set up and with a full bobbin on it, was noticeably lighter in hand than my freestanding Fricke floor skeiner!
How Does It Stack Up To Competition?
For usability and scope of capabilities, I would rate it as roughly similar to a Journey Wheel, but lighter, though it takes longer to set up and pack up, and lacks double drive or a single treadle option, and larger-footed spinners may find it cramped in the treadle area as a result, even though it can be worked with only one treadle easily. Ergonomically the wheel is excellent, and extremely low impact, with smoothness and ease of treadle action comparable to most wheels in the $700+ range. It lacks the sheer bobbin capacity and versatility of a Majacraft wheel, but is substantially smaller than most and lighter even than the Gem. Compared to the Lendrum, it’s faster to set up and take down, but not as versatile in terms of speeds, though I found Victoria’s flyer design is a little friendlier. Smaller, lighter, quieter and smoother in operation than the Ashford Joy, bobbin capacity for the Victoria is similar if not larger than Ashford’s standard bobbins, in part due to sliding flyer hooks which enable the spinner to fill the bobbin evenly.
I spun 6 yarns with equal ease and comfort, encountering real limits only when spinning loose camel down into fine yarn; for my liking when it comes to down fibers, I just want more speed than Victoria can provide right now. I expect the high speed kit will remedy this when it becomes available in 2007. As a longtime critic of bobbin lead, and someone who has ruled out a number of very nice Louet wheels for myself in the past, I can absolutely say those issues do not exist with the Victoria, as evidenced by an 11-gram, 195-yard skein of approximately 7500 ypp 2-ply tussah silk (pictured at left, the finished 2-ply yarn wrapped around the edge of a penny).
The Actual Opinion
The bottom line is that I’ll use the heck out of this wheel, and would recommend it as a travel wheel for any spinner, and as a primary wheel for spinners with limited space. I would also rate it highly for spinners for whom ergonomics are at issue. If spinning down fibers or cotton are your primary goals, wait and see on the high speed kit; if super-bulky is your main thing, you might prefer a larger wheel. However, if you’re looking for all-around versatility in a tiny, lightweight package, you can’t go wrong with Louet’s newest wheel, which I also expect to be entirely maintenance-free after break-in, needing nothing more than a very occasional replacement of scotch tension brake band. And if you’re a flyer lead fan or super-fine spinner long disappointed in bobbin lead wheels, this is the wheel you’ve wished Louet would make.
Here are the yarns I spun during my 5-day road test of the Louet Victoria S95/S96:
2-ply white fingering/light sock weight yarn, from commercial merino top: 18 grams / .625 oz, 125 yards — 3200 yards per pound
Spinning wheels are pulley systems. Changing ratios is basically the same principle as changing gears on a bicycle, except instead of sprockets and chains, you’ve got pulleys and drive bands.
Simply put, a ratio of 5:1 means that the drive wheel’s circumference is 5 times that of the circumference of the thing being driven (like the whorl). For every time that the drive wheel completes one rotation, the thing being driven (whether it’s flyer whorl, or bobbin) will rotate 5
times. So if you treadled such that the drive wheel completed 30 rotations (or revolutions) per minute, the flyer or bobbin would complete 5 times that many, or 150. Your 30 rpm at the drive wheel becomes 150 rpm at the flyer or bobbin.
If you want your flyer or bobbin to be going faster than that, in order to make more twist go into your yarn faster as you are spinning, without different ratios, your only option would be to increase the speed of the drive wheel, say by treadling faster on a treadle-powered wheel. Increasing your speed to where you are going 60 rpm at the drive wheel would then increase flyer or bobbin speed in a directly linear way, still at a ratio of 5:1 — so now you’re going 300 rpm at the flyer.
But, let’s say that you have another ratio available to you, of 7 to 1. In this case, the drive wheel’s circumference is 7 times that of the driven object. Simply changing from the 5:1 ratio to the 7:1 ratio, without changing the speed at which you’re treadling or turning the drive wheel, changes you from going 30 rpm at the drive wheel and 150 rpm at the driven end, to 30 rpm at the drive wheel and 210 rpm at the driven end.
So, an application of this principle: let’s say that I want to spin a really fine and high-twist yarn at a rate of, say, 1500 rpm at the flyer. To do this with a drive ratio of 5:1 on a treadle powered wheel where each treadle stroke represents a full rotation of the drive wheel, I’d have to treadle 300 times a minute!! Yowza! There’s no way that’s humanly possible. But at a ratio of 30:1, I’d only have to treadle 50 times a minute, to get 1500 rpm at the driven end. 😉
To sum up, different ratios allow you to get twist into your yarn at different rates while you are spinning, without changing the speed at which you treadle (or turn the drive wheel).
Going from a larger drive wheel circumference to a smaller driven item circumference, you get the biggest speed gains, and fastest flyer/bobbin rotation relative to treadling speed. Going from smallest drive wheel circumference to largest driven item circumference, you get the slowest flyer/bobbin speed relative to treadling speed. On most modern spinning wheels, this means if you have your drive band going around the largest groove on the drive wheel, and the smallest groove on your whorl, you’re going as fast as that wheel can go; if you’re going around the smallest groove on the drive wheel, and the largest groove on the whorl, you’re going as slow as that wheel can go.
Similar to bicycle gears, some ratios also can require more effort and force than others, just to get around — think of shifting to a low gear, for low-effort pedaling to get uphill, and then a higher gear, for greater speed on a flat stretch once you get going. The same effect is in play in pulley systems, but as implemented in spinning wheels, you typically need to be pushing the limits of your system in order to detect these effects to any great degree.
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